How does a DSC token differ from a traditional password?

Authentication Methodology

DSC Token: A DSC (Digital Signature Certificate) token is a physical or digital device used to provide secure and multifactor authentication. It relies on cryptographic principles and digital signatures to verify the identity of users.

Traditional Password: A traditional password is a secret alphanumeric combination chosen by a user. Authentication depends solely on something the user knows.

Security Level

DSC: Digital Signature Tokens offer a higher level of security compared to passwords. They use complex encryption algorithms and digital signatures, making it extremely difficult for unauthorized access.

Traditional Password: Passwords are susceptible to various vulnerabilities like brute force attacks, phishing, and password reuse, making them less secure than DSC tokens.

Two-factor authentication (2FA)

DSC: DSC tokens often incorporate 2FA, requiring users to possess both the token and a PIN or biometric data, adding an extra layer of security.

Traditional Password: 2FA can be added to password-based systems, but it’s not inherent to the password itself.

User Convenience

DSC Token: Using a DSC token may be less convenient for users as they need to carry a physical token or install specific software to access it.

Traditional Password: Passwords are more convenient but may lead to weak practices like using easily guessable passwords.

Password Management

DSC Token: Users do not need to remember complex passwords, reducing the need for extensive password management.

Traditional Password: Users must manage and remember their passwords, often leading to weak or reused passwords.


DSC Token: While highly secure, Digital Signature Certificate tokens can be lost or stolen. Also potentially compromising security if not reported promptly.

Traditional Password: Traditional passwords are vulnerable to various attacks, including brute force, dictionary attacks, and social engineering.

Cost and Implementation

DSC Token: Implementing Digital Signature Certificate tokens can be costlier due to the purchase. Also distribution of physical tokens or the development of secure digital solutions.

Traditional Password: Password-based systems are typically easier and less expensive to implement but may incur hidden costs due to security breaches.

In summary, DSC tokens provide a more secure authentication method than traditional passwords due to their multifactor authentication, and cryptographic principles. And resistance to common password vulnerabilities. However, they may be less convenient and involve higher implementation costs. The choice between DSC tokens and traditional passwords should be based on the specific security needs and usability considerations of an organization or system.

List of companies converted from private limited to public limited.

Private limited companies offer such a huge amount without help from anyone else. However, eventually, every private limited company wishes to turn public to expand versatility. The inquiry as a rule put across is, The reason to open up to the world. The response relies upon a specific unmistakable distinction that happens between confidential restricted organizations and public limited companies which likewise offer the idea of the First sale of stock (Initial public offering). It also has the idea of offering to the general population.

The idea of Initial public offering – First sale of stock consequently eliminates the limitation on the adaptability of offers. Which is a quality of private restricted organizations. It has been permanent that there is no cap in wording to the greatest number of individuals in any open restricted organization, in this way allowing them to raise and acquire simple admittance to subsidizing. Subsequently, development and adaptability are ideally the purposes behind the change from private limited to public limited.

Below is the list of companies converted from private limited to public limited

Nykaa Ltd.

Since their launch, they have not only redefined the art of e-re tailing beauty and personal care in India. They also have been instrumental in fostering the growth of a previously relatively nascent ecosystem. From bringing domestic brands, international brands, luxury and prestige brands, premium brands, niche, and cult brands. Also offer expert advice and videos, coupled with our understanding of the needs and preferences of the consumers, to more than 72 Luxe and On-Trend and Kiosk Stores, an ever-growing online community for beauty buffs, and a Beauty Helpline, we go out of our way to give you only the very best. With 2400+, 100% authentic brands Nykaa offers a well-curated comprehensive selection of makeup, skincare, haircare, bath and body, fragrance, grooming appliances, personal care, health, and wellness categories.

Derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Nayaka’ meaning actress or one in the spotlight. Nykaa is all about celebrating the star in each woman and being her confidante and companion. She embarks on her own journey to discover her unique identity and personal style. From the widest selection of genuine beauty products from around the world to beauty advice. Nykaa is truly passionate about catering to your every beauty and wellness need. Because after all, Your Beauty is Our Passion.

Zomato Ltd.

Launched in 2010, Our technology platform connects customers, restaurant partners, and delivery partners, serving their multiple needs. Customers use our platform to search and discover restaurants, read and write customer-generated reviews and view and upload photos, order food delivery, book a table, and make payments while dining out at restaurants. On the other hand, we provide restaurant partners with industry-specific marketing tools which enable them to engage and acquire customers to grow their business while also providing a reliable and efficient last-mile delivery service. We also operate a one-stop procurement solution, Hyperpure, which supplies high-quality ingredients and kitchen products to restaurant partners. We also provide our delivery partners with transparent and flexible earning opportunities.

Dodla Dairy Ltd

Dodla Holdings Pte Ltd. was incorporated on 20 June 2014 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Dodla Dairy Limited with a view toward overseas expansion.

Indigo Paints Ltd.

Starting in the year 2000, Indigo Paints had a modest beginning. It started out with the manufacture of lower-end Cement paints, and gradually expanded its range to cover most segments of water-based paints like Exterior Emulsions, Interior Emulsions, Distempers, Primers, etc. From an early age, the Company spread its footprints across the country. Today the Company stands out as one of the strongest contenders in the Indian paint industry. Being rated as an innovative paint manufacturer, which keeps coming out with unique products never before offered in the country.

Over time, the Company found its niche in the paint industry through innovation. It kept churning out bright new ideas for painting solutions, with alarming regularity. Gradually, the industry began looking upon the Company as a futuristic thinker and a storehouse of new product development.

With changing times and trends, Indigo Paints revamped its identity showcasing a new wave of thinking by the Company. A few years ago it clubbed all its multiple brands for different product categories into a single umbrella brand “INDIGO”. A new logo for the brand and the Company was created, which accurately reflected the core philosophy of the organization. The logo design was extended to all packaging designs and other forms of corporate communication.

Kalyan Jewellers India Ltd.

We are one of the oldest business families in India with a family legacy of over a century in business, starting from as early as 1908. Started for the noble cause of nation-building and self-sustenance in a pre-independent India. The forefathers believed ethical, honest, and transparent business practices should form the foundation of the group.

What is the Procedure for the Conversion of a Private Company into a Public Company?

An organization previously signed up for a class might change itself as an organization of one more class by alteration of the notice and articles of the organization. An application in such a manner is normal to be made to the recorder. The recorder subsequent to being persuaded that all means to consent to the prerequisites, then it will close the previous enrollment of the organization. In the wake of enrolling the records connected with the change, the Enlistment Center will give a testament of fuse. The change of an organization will not expect any obligation, guarantee, liabilities, or commitments. Such obligations, liabilities, and agreements might be authorized and executed as though there is no such trade.

Assembling of Board Conference: Issue is seen as indicated by the arrangements of segment 173(3) of the Organizations Act, 2013. It is for changing over a gathering of the Governing body. The principal objective of this Executive gathering would be:

Pass a board goal to get in-head consent of chiefs for the change of a privately owned business to a public organization by modifying the AOA(articles of affiliation).

To get the endorsement of investors, fix the date, time, and spot for holding an Extra-standard Comprehensive gathering (EGM), via Exceptional goal, to change over a privately owned business into a public organization.

To endorse the notification of EGM with a plan and explanation to be added to the notification of Regular gatherings, according to area 102(1) of the Organizations Act, 2013.

To designate the Chief or Organization Secretary to give a Notification of the Extra-standard Regular gathering (EGM) as suggested by the board under article 1(c) referenced previously.

Pass Board goal for an expansion in the number of chiefs up to 3, assuming the number of chiefs is under 3.

Issue of EGM Notice: Issue Notice of the Extra-customary Comprehensive gathering (EGM) to all individuals and associates, chiefs. And examiners of the organization following the prerequisites of Segment 101 of the Organizations Act, 2013.

The holding of the EGM meeting: It holds the Extra-standard Regular gathering on the due date, and moves the expected Unique Goal. To get the investor’s help for the change of the privately owned business into a public organization alongside modification in articles of the understanding, under segment 14 for such transformation.

Recorder of Company(ROC) documenting: For a change in the Article of Relationship for the transformation of a publicly restricted organization under segment 14. A couple of E-structures will be recorded and enrolled with the concerned Enlistment Center of Organizations at various stages according to the subtleties referenced.

E-structure For recording unique goal with ROC passed for change of a privately owned business into a public organization.

In the event of a change in the Article of Relationship for the transformation to a public organization extraordinary goal, is expected to be passed under segment 14. As per segment 117(3)(a). A duplicate of this exceptional goal is supposed to be recorded with the concerned ROC through the documenting of structure MGT.14 within something like 30 days of passing the goal in the EGM.

As per Rule 33 of Organizations (Fuse) Rules, 2014, for changing over a privately owned business into a public organization, the application will be recorded in Structure No. INC-27 with the expense. Also, the change of the organization is to be enlisted in e-Structure INC.27 to the ROC in question, with all the required annexures, and with the recommended charge.

According to segment 18, in the wake of getting the reports for the transformation of a confidential restricted organization into a publicly restricted organization. ROC will persuade itself that the organization conforms to the essential arrangements for enlisting an organization. Provided that this is true persuaded, ROC (Recorder of Organizations) will encase the past enrollment and issue a new declaration of fuse, in the wake of enlisting the reports introduced for change under the particular class of the organization.

Trade approvals provide hassle-free online legal, tax, converting companies structure from private limited to public limited, and compliance support to startups and SMEs who have limited budgets during the initial days of Business. With a Network of 100+ Expert CAs, Lawyers, Company Secretaries, Accountants, and Business Consultants we aim to aim to reconstruct the substructure of Indian legal and consultancy services.

We provide a quick solution at affordable costs starting from incorporating a company to various other licenses like FSSAI, ISO Certification, GST Registration, Trademark Registration, Annual Filing, and much more

Trade Approvals India’s Top Performing MSMEs Benefits of MSME Registration

India’s micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) play a crucial role in the country’s economy, contributing significantly to employment generation and industrial growth. Recognizing their importance, the Indian government has implemented various initiatives to support and promote MSMEs. This summary provides an overview of Trade Approvals India’s top-performing MSMEs and highlights the benefits of MSME registration in the country.

India’s Top Performing MSMEs by Trade Approvals

Several MSMEs in India have demonstrated exceptional performance and growth, contributing significantly to the nation’s economic development. These enterprises have excelled in various sectors, including manufacturing, services, and exports. Some notable examples of top-performing Indian MSMEs include:

Tata Motors: As one of India’s largest automobile manufacturers, Tata Motors has achieved remarkable success in both domestic and international markets. It produces a diverse range of vehicles, including passenger cars, commercial vehicles, and electric vehicles.

Hindustan Unilever Limited: Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is a leading fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) company in India. It offers a wide range of products, including personal care items, food and beverages, and home care products.

Infosys: Infosys is a globally renowned IT services and consulting company. It provides software development, maintenance, and consulting services to clients across various industries. With its innovative solutions, Infosys has emerged as a prominent player in the global IT sector.

Reliance Industries Limited: Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is a diversified conglomerate with operations in multiple sectors, including petrochemicals, refining, telecommunications, and retail. RIL has experienced significant growth under the leadership of Mukesh Ambani, becoming one of India’s most valuable companies.

Trade Approvals by Benefits of MSME Registration in India

Obtaining MSME registration in India offers numerous advantages to enterprises, enabling them to thrive and access various incentives and support mechanisms. Some key benefits of MSME registration are as follows:

Financial Assistance: MSMEs registered with the government are eligible for various financial schemes and assistance programs, including loans at lower interest rates, credit guarantees, and subsidies. These provisions enable MSMEs to access the capital required for business expansion and modernization.

Priority Sector Lending: MSMEs enjoy priority sector lending status from banks, ensuring easier access to credit and financial services. This priority treatment facilitates their growth and reduces the financial burden on small and medium-sized enterprises.

Tax Benefits: MSME registration offers several tax benefits, such as exemption from certain direct taxes and reduced rates under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime. These concessions help MSMEs reduce their operational costs and enhance profitability.

Government Tenders and Support: MSMEs registered with the government can participate in government tenders exclusively reserved for small-scale enterprises. Additionally, the government provides extensive support through various schemes, such as technology upgradation, skill development, and marketing assistance.

Intellectual Property Rights Protection: MSME registration enables businesses to protect their intellectual property rights more effectively. It provides legal recognition and safeguards against infringement, promoting innovation and creativity within the MSME sector.

In conclusion, India’s top-performing MSMEs have made remarkable contributions to the country’s economy. By obtaining MSME registration, these enterprises and others can avail themselves of several benefits, including financial assistance, tax benefits, and priority sector lending. Furthermore, MSME registration provides legal recognition and protection for intellectual property rights, fostering growth and innovation within the sector. The Indian government’s focus on supporting MSMEs continues to create a favorable environment for their sustainable development and economic prosperity.

What legal approvals are needed before construction?

Legal approvals required before construction in India involve a series of regulatory processes and permits to ensure compliance with various laws and regulations. Here is a complete summary of the approvals demand, categorized under different headings.

Land Acquisition and Ownership

Ownership Documents: The landowner must possess valid ownership documents such as a sale deed, gift deed, lease agreement, etc.

Conversion of Land Use: If the land is notable for a different purpose, the owner needs to obtain permission to convert it for construction purposes.

Regulatory Legal Approvals

Building Plan Approval: The proposed construction plan must be submitted in to the local development authority or municipality for legal approvals.

Environmental Clearance: Projects falling under specific categories, such as large-scale infrastructure or environmentally sensitive areas, require environmental clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

Fire Safety Clearance: The project must meet fire safety regulations, and the fire department grants the necessary clearance.

Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Clearance: If the construction is near the coast, clearance from the Coastal Zone Management Authority is mandatory.

Heritage Clearance: If the site falls within a designated heritage area, approval from the relevant heritage conservation authority is necessary.

Local Body Legal Approvals

Development Authority Approval: Legal Approval from the local development authority or urban planning department is necessary. To ensure compliance with local zoning and building regulations.

Municipal Corporation Approval: Municipal corporations have jurisdiction over building regulations, and their approval is necessary.

NOC from Water and Sewage Department: A no-objection certificate (NOC) from the water and sewage department. It is required to ensure adequate provision of water supply and sewage disposal.

Utility Connections

Electricity Connection: Approval from the electricity distribution company is necessary to obtain a power connection.

Water Connection: Permission and connection from the local water supply authority are required.

Drainage Connection: NOC from the sewage department for drainage connection needs to be get.

Labor and Safety Regulations:

Labor Clearance

Compliance with labor laws and obtaining necessary permissions related to labor welfare is essential.

Occupational Health and Safety Clearance: Certification of compliance with safety regulations is need of from the relevant authority.

Finance and Taxation

Loans and Financial Approvals: If financing is need of, obtaining loans from financial institutions or banks is necessary.

Goods and Services Tax (GST) Registration: Registration under the GST Act is mandatory for construction-related activities. Moreover, it is also important to note that the specific requirements and approval processes may vary depending on the location and nature of the construction project. Hence, it is advisable to consult with local authorities and engage professionals familiar with the local regulations to ensure a smooth approval process.

Trade approvals Simplify starting and running your new business with us. We also offer a full suite of business formation services to help you launch your new business with confidence. Our experts will guide you through indeed every step of the process.

Why small businesses should apply for MSME and GST Registration?

Small businesses can benefit from applying for MSME (Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises) and GST (Goods and Services Tax) registration. These registrations provide several advantages and opportunities for growth. The MSME registration offers benefits such as access to loans, government subsidies, and priority in government procurement. On the other hand, GST registration enables small businesses to comply with tax regulations, claim input tax credits, expand their customer base, and enhance credibility. This article explores these benefits in detail, highlighting why small businesses should consider applying for MSME and GST registration.

MSME Registration

Access to Loans: Small businesses with MSME registration can avail themselves of various financial schemes and loans specifically designed for them. These loans come with lower interest rates and more favorable repayment terms, providing much-needed financial assistance for business expansion.

Government Subsidies and Incentives

MSME-registered businesses are eligible for numerous government subsidies and incentives. These include capital investment subsidies, reimbursement of ISO certification expenses, reduced electricity tariffs, and exemptions on certain taxes. Such benefits help reduce operational costs and foster business growth.

Priority in Government Procurement

MSME-registered enterprises receive preference in government procurement contracts. This priority can lead to increased business opportunities, steady cash flow, and stability, as government contracts often offer long-term commitments and reliable payments.

GST Registration

Tax Compliance: GST registration ensures small businesses comply with the tax regulations imposed by the government. It allows businesses to collect and remit the Goods and Services Tax, avoiding penalties and legal complications.

Input Tax Credit: GST-registered businesses can claim input tax credits for the taxes they have paid on their purchases. This credit can be utilized to offset the GST liability on sales, reducing the overall tax burden and enhancing profitability.

Expanded Customer Base: GST registration enables small businesses to sell their products and services to a larger customer base. Many businesses, particularly larger enterprises, and government organizations prefer to engage with GST-registered vendors to avail themselves of input tax credits. Being GST-compliant can attract more customers and lead to increased sales.

Enhanced Credibility: GST registration lends credibility and professionalism to small businesses. It demonstrates compliance with tax laws and signifies the business’s commitment to transparency. This can be particularly advantageous when dealing with business partners, suppliers, and customers.

In conclusion, small businesses should consider applying for both MSME and GST registrations due to the numerous benefits they offer. MSME registration provides access to loans, government subsidies, and priority in government procurement, while GST registration ensures tax compliance, input tax credit claims, an expanded customer base, and enhanced credibility. These registrations can significantly contribute to the growth, financial stability, and overall success of small businesses.

What registrations are required to open a restaurant in India?

Opening a restaurant in India requires several registrations and licenses to ensure compliance with the country’s legal and regulatory framework. All Required licenses and registrations are provided by the best consultant in Delhi Trade Approvals. These registrations cover various aspects of the establishment, including business formation, food safety, tax obligations, and employment regulations. The following is a complete summary of the key registrations required to open a restaurant in India. Categorized under relevant headings:

Business Formation:

Business Entity Registration: Register your restaurant as a legal entity, such as a proprietorship, or partnership. Limited liability partnership (LLP), or private limited company. Also the Registrar of Companies (RoC).

Shops and Establishment Act: Obtain a registration certificate under the respective state’s Shops and Establishment Act to legalize your business operations.

Licenses and Permits:

a. FSSAI License: Obtain a license from the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to ensure compliance with food safety regulations.

b. Health/Trade License: Obtain a health/trade license from the local municipal corporation or council.

c. Eating House License: Apply for an Eating House License from the local police commissioner’s office.

d. Liquor License: If you plan to serve alcoholic beverages, obtain a liquor license from the state excise department.

e. Fire Department Clearance: Obtain a No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the local fire department to ensure compliance with fire safety regulations.

f. Music License: If you plan to play recorded or live music obtain a license from the Indian Performing Rights Society (IPRS) or Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL).

Get GST Registration By Trade approvals

GST registration refers to the process of enrolling a business under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) system in India. It is mandatory for businesses with an annual turnover exceeding a specified threshold. GST registration enables businesses to collect GST from customers, claim input tax credits, and comply with tax regulations. It involves submitting relevant documents and information to the tax authorities for verification and obtaining a unique GST identification number (GSTIN). Once registered, businesses are required to file regular GST returns and maintain proper records of their transactions.

Tax Registrations:

a. Goods and Services Tax (GST): Register for GST with the Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN) to comply with indirect tax regulations.

b. Professional Tax: Register for professional tax with the respective state’s commercial tax department.

Trademark Registration by Trade Approvals

Consider registering your restaurant’s name, logo, or brand as a trademark with the Trademarks Registry to protect your intellectual property.

Employee-related Registrations:

a. Employee State Insurance (ESI): Register your restaurant under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 if you have more than 10 employees.

b. Employee Provident Fund (EPF): Register your restaurant under the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 if you have more than 20 employees.

c. Professional Tax: Deduct and remit professional tax on behalf of your employees to the state government.

It is important to note that the specific requirements and procedures for these registrations may vary depending on state and local regulations. Therefore, it is advisable to consult with a legal professional or seek guidance from the respective authorities to ensure compliance with all applicable laws.

In conclusion, opening a restaurant in India involves obtaining registrations and licenses related to business formation. Food safety, taxation, intellectual property, and employee-related regulations. Adhering to these legal requirements will help you operate your restaurant within the framework of the Indian legal system and ensure a smooth and compliant business operation.

What are the minimum requirements for registering a company in India?

Registering a company in India involves fulfilling certain requirements to ensure compliance with the country’s legal framework. These requirements are designed to establish a transparent and secure business environment. This article outlines the minimum prerequisites for registering a company in India.

Entity Type:

The first step in registering a company in India is determining the appropriate legal entity type. The options include private limited company, public limited company, limited liability partnership (LLP), or one-person company (OPC). Each entity type has specific characteristics and regulations governing its formation and operations.

Directors and Shareholders:

A private limited company in India must have a minimum of two directors, while a public limited company requires at least three. Additionally, shareholders’ presence is mandatory, with a minimum of two shareholders for a private limited company and seven for a public limited company.

Directors’ Identification Number (DIN):

Every director of an Indian company must obtain a unique DIN from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA). The DIN serves as a unique identification for the director and is got by submitting the necessary documents and forms to the MCA.

Digital Signature Certificate (DSC):

A digital signature is in need of to ensure the authenticity and integrity of electronic documents filed with the MCA. At least one director must possess a valid digital signature issued by an authorized certifying agency.

Name Approval:

Choosing a unique and appropriate name for the company is crucial. The proposed name must conform to the naming guidelines specified by the MCA. Once selected, an application for name approval must be submitted, along with the required fee, to the Registrar of Companies (ROC).

Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA):

The MOA and AOA are legal documents that outline the company’s objectives, rules, and regulations. These documents must be drafted and filed with the ROC. They contain details about the company’s capital structure, shareholders’ rights, and governing provisions.

Registered Office:

Every company must have a registered office address within India from the date of incorporation. Proof of address, such as a rental agreement or utility bill, must be provided during the registration process.

Incorporation Forms and Fees:

The next step involves filing the required incorporation forms, such as the SPICe (Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically) or the e-Form INC-32. The prescribed fees must be paid along with the forms.

PAN and TAN:

After the company’s incorporation, it is mandatory to obtain a Permanent Account Number (PAN) from the Income Tax Department. Additionally, a Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN) must be obtained for tax-related purposes.

Statutory Compliance:

Once registered, the company must comply with various statutory requirements, including filing annual returns, maintaining books of accounts, conducting regular board meetings, and complying with taxation and regulatory provisions.


Registering a company in India involves meeting several minimum requirements, including selecting an appropriate entity type, obtaining DIN and DSC, name approval, drafting MOA and AOA, providing a registered office address, filing incorporation forms, and obtaining PAN and TAN. Compliance with statutory obligations is essential for maintaining the company’s legal status and operations within the Indian business landscape.